Module 10: Advocacy: Engaging the Public
In This Module, Trustees Will Explore:
- The components of effective board advocacy
- The relationship between board advocacy and student achievement and wellness
- The relationship between board advocacy and government policy directives
- School board advocacy as local democracy in action
When school board trustees are elected, they assume responsibility for representing their constituents in all education issues related to their school district. A large part of their role as members of the governing board involves setting strategic directions and approving policies that affect such key areas as student achievement and well-being, school programs and services, school climate, and budget and allocation of resources. As the voice of publicly funded education in Ontario, trustees take on an equally important role in the realm of advocacy. In their interactions with families, constituents, various levels of government and the general public, trustees are responsible for representing and promoting the best interests of the students of the school board. In doing so they have the opportunity to be champions for public education and to promote the role of school boards in delivering quality education at the local level.
Publicly funded education operates in a dynamic, ever-evolving environment and must be responsive to changes in government and legislation, societal pressures including parent expectations, the vagaries of the economy, emerging trends in education program and assessment, and technological advances. These forces have reshaped the work of school boards and the role of trustees in Ontario over the last several years and will continue to have influence in our highly- connected world. As the publicly funded education system continues to evolve and policy makers focus on ongoing reforms, the advocacy role of school trustees becomes even more vital to the future of education in Ontario. Deeper engagement with their communities and interactive communication with their constituents represent an increasingly critical aspect of the role of trustees. The constituents of the school board have entrusted their trustee representatives with the responsibility of providing a first-class education for their children. Trustees must ensure that the voices of school supporters can be heard by government, and that government is responsive to those voices.
The state of Ontario’s economy and the shift in demographics creates increased competition for tax dollars and the challenge for trustees is to convince the Ontario public that investment in publicly funded education is the wisest investment of all if we are to build a cohesive society and a prosperous future for Ontario. Engaging all sectors and government levels goes to the heart of the advocacy role that school trustees must undertake.
What is Advocacy?
Advocacy is active support for an idea or a cause. It can take many forms, but includes speaking up and drawing attention to an important issue. It may also include influencing decision-makers. It usually involves the interests of specific groups or organizations and the interests of the government. In education, advocacy often revolves around topics such as funding, special needs, language delivery, or early childhood education; the common denominator is the interests of students and the value of publicly funded education.
An individual has not started living until he can rise above the narrow confines of his individualistic concerns to the broader concerns of all humanity.
- Martin Luther King Jr
Martin Luther King Jr. is one of a number of inspirational leaders who knew the value of looking at the broader concerns of humankind. These are leaders who acted on a deeply felt imperative to reach out beyond their own immediate circles, beyond their own communities, and act for the benefit of those in need. School trustees have a similar calling. A vital aspect of their multi-faceted role requires them to reach beyond the specific issues that drew them to public office and be advocates for children and families, particularly those who may not have a voice.
Trustees as Advocates
Trustees possess a range of skills, experience, knowledge, values, beliefs and opinions. Their backgrounds are varied and it is this diversity that contributes to good decision making at the board table. They bring an awareness of the specific issues articulated by parents as well as the overall interests of their community. They consider the unique needs of their community when reflecting on a particular issue and encourage their constituents to participate in the school system. A significant amount of the trustees’ time is spent responding to constituents’ questions, requests and to helping them navigate their way towards solutions to concerns.
The trustee is a leader and, in many respects, is the kind of leader who takes a visionary position and inspires others. Trustees may advocate for the elimination of child poverty and because of their knowledge of the issue and the passion they bring to it, motivate others to pursue the cause. At other times, trustees can be so caught up in responding to day-to-day issues that the big picture recedes from view. The responsibility that comes with leadership is a complex balancing act, one that demands immediate attention for specific community needs while keeping one’s eye on the major policy issues that affect all the students of the board. Finding time and energy to advocate for change in the arena of public policy is a considerable challenge.
What is the Difference Between Lobbying and Advocacy?
The terms advocacy and lobbying are often used interchangeably but there are distinct differences in their purpose, method and intent. Dictionary definitions offer some clarity on these distinctions.
Advocacy is about influencing public opinion or attitudes about issues that affect people’s lives. The advocate believes in the cause and willingly promotes it. Trustees, as part of their role, may advocate for a variety of issues such as more buses, computers in the classrooms, lower student/teacher ratios and do this because, specific as it is, they believe it is the right thing to do for students. Or they can advocate for a large issue such as environmental sustainability or a national focus on children’s mental health.
Lobbying on the other hand refers to efforts to influence politicians and senior government staff with regard to particular legislation with intent to achieve specific change in or outcomes from the legislation.
These distinctions are important to be aware of; however, there are times when an advocacy strategy will include elements of lobbying. For example, advocacy for societal support for safe and caring schools could also involve lobbying for specific changes in Safe Schools legislation.
Advocate: to speak, plead, or argue in favour of. 1. One that argues for a cause; a supporter or defender: an advocate of civil rights. 2. One that pleads on another’s behalf; an intercessor. (Fr. Latin: ad-vocare [to-call])
Lobby: 3. A group of persons engaged in trying to influence legislators or other public officials in favour of a specific cause: the banking lobby.
Lobbying: 1. To try to influence public officials on behalf of or against (proposed legislation, for example). 2. To try to influence (an official) to take a desired action.
The ITP Nelson Canadian Dictionary of the English Language. 1997
Why engage in Advocacy?
School board trustees are the elected spokespersons for education. They are engaged in their communities, know the interests of their constituents, and have established lines of communication that invite input and allow the trustee to share information about important issues affecting the school board in particular and education in general. This strengthens the trustee’s base for their advocacy role.
There is nothing static about the environment within which school boards must operate so very often there are issues that require an advocacy approach. An important role of the trustee is to speak out on behalf of their constituents to ensure that policy makers at the provincial and local levels understand the implications of their policy decisions for individuals.
Those who make public policy at the provincial level must be made aware of the goals of school board constituents and be encouraged to learn where the community and the school board stand on specific issues. By speaking out and advocating for the interests of school boards within the publicly funded education system, trustees can influence government decisions. They can propose solutions to benefit not only their own community, but all communities affected by government policies. By expressing their views they can bring to public attention the issues at stake and provide alternatives to views that they see as harmful to the publicly funded education system.
Public policy can cover a lot of territory and, on the face of it, may seem to be outside the purview of education. It is the job of trustees to be vigilant about what can affect the lives of students, the best work of school boards and the well-being of the community.
High-quality, well-funded public education is an investment in the future of Ontario. By speaking out on education issues, school board trustees not only represent the concerns of school supporters, they challenge the province’s policy-makers to see the value of building a strong education system through progressive public policy. Education as a foundational cornerstone of a prosperous democracy can then be an essential part of the political agenda and a matter of public interest.
Public Interest – The Big Picture
Genuine politics – even politics worthy of the name – the only politics I am willing to devote myself to – is simply a matter of serving those around us: serving the community and serving those who will come after us. Its deepest roots are moral because it is a responsibility expressed through action, to and for the whole.
- Vaclav Havel
Because of their political role, trustees are ideally positioned to advocate across the province and at the provincial government level on issues that are matters of public policy. These matters are often directly linked to key aspects of school board governance such as creating the winning conditions for children’s achievement and well-being. Indeed advocacy is a critical part of the job description of elected school boards. (See Module #3 – Roles and Responsibilities) Advocacy doesn’t just happen; it is purposeful and needs to be provided for in board policy and be a component of the board’s strategic plan. Some examples of public interest advocacy that are taken up by school boards and incorporated in the work of individual trustees are:
Children’s Mental Health
Approximately one in five children and youth in Ontario has a mental health challenge and of these only 20% receive any treatment or intervention. (http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/specialneeds/mentalhealth/index.aspx) What that means for the education system is that one in five children experiences a barrier that gets in the way of their readiness to learn. What it means for society at large is that we are failing to provide essential supports that will lead to improved health and prosperity for all our communities. One could take a narrow view and say it is up to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care to deal with this. The advocate for children’s mental health says we are all responsible and that all Ministries that deal with children, public agencies and school boards have to recognize the reality of their interdependence and collaborate to ensure better life chances for every child.
Poverty is also an all too prevalent condition that has an impact on the readiness of children to learn and calls equally for concerted efforts and strong levels of advocacy. On 24 November, 1989, the House of Commons resolved to seek “to achieve the goal of eliminating poverty among Canadian children by the year 2000.” This resolution passed by a unanimous vote of all parties. Twenty five years later, Campaign 2000’s most recent report card found that more Canadian children live in poverty today than they did when the House of Commons resolved to end child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. 4 in 10 of Canada’s First Nations children live in poverty and the gap between rich and poor families remains wide, leaving average-income families also struggling to keep up.(Campaign 2000 is a cross-Canada public education movement to build Canadian awareness and support for the 1989 all-party House of Commons resolution to end child poverty in Canada.) At the local level school boards respond with practical supports such as breakfast programs and after-school programs. On a broader level they engage in advocacy work through such organizations as Campaign 2000 or through direct input into Ontario’s Poverty Reduction Strategy.
Poverty diminishes esteem and a sense of dignity. Not to be able to provide equal opportunities for our children, literally to wear our inadequacy on our second-hand sleeve, invites feelings of shame, anger and resignation. Humans are social beings with a strong need to belong to their communities
- John Kenneth Galbraith
First Nation, Métis and Inuit Education
Advocating for the rights and needs of First Nation, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) children calls on trustees to build awareness of the discrepancies in economic, social and education opportunities between FNMI children and children in the rest of Canada. Due to these historic discrepancies, Canada’s Auditor General noted in 2004, and reaffirmed in 2011, that it would take at least 28 years to close the education gap experienced by First Nation students. School boards have an obligation to ensure that there are specific programs and supports in the board’s schools for First Nation, Métis and Inuit students, including culturally responsive curriculum, and that all students learn about FNMI cultures and histories. It is equally important to build capacity among all staff and to support the presence in the board’s workforce of FNMI teachers and other staff. A broader approach includes awareness-building and advocacy that support First Nations in their efforts to address inequities in funding and services at the federal government level.
If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor. If an elephant has its foot on the tail of a mouse and you say that you are neutral, the mouse will not appreciate your neutrality
- Bishop Desmond Tutu
Services for Immigrant Children and Youth
Ontario receives approximately half of the immigrant families who arrive in Canada each year. The children from these families attend publicly funded schools and their needs extend far beyond what is typically found in the education funding envelope and yet has a direct impact on achievement for immigrant students. The focus of school board advocacy, and sometimes direct lobbying, in this area is on capacity to provide the services that new families need to settle and integrate successfully into life in Ontario.
In an age of increased awareness of our interdependence and interconnectedness, trustees are advocates for not only their local community but for the larger society. A good example is how well practices that promote environmental sustainability are entrenched in Ontario schools. Students are leaders in recycling and school boards continue to advocate for supports for the “greening” of schools. Environmental education is infused in the curriculum. This is an advocacy area that reaches out from the local community to span the globe.
I wonder why we all cannot see that we create our future each day, and that our local actions affect the global community, today as well as for generations to come
- Dr. Roberta Bondar
These examples of public policy advocacy are, or can be, included in the advocacy plans of school boards in Ontario’s four publicly funded school systems. Each system will incorporate in its plan advocacy issues that are specific to its needs.
In engaging its public, the public school system emphasizes its commitment to inclusiveness and universality, promoting the dignity and equality of every individual regardless of culture, race, life circumstances, religious beliefs or sexual orientation. Public schools are represented as a place where all students and their families are equally welcomed, where they interact and learn about each other in an environment of respect, tolerance, and understanding, and where the pursuit of learning is characterized by the spirit of exploration.
The advocacy efforts of Catholic trustees, school boards and their provincial school board association are always mindful of the goal of promoting and protecting the future of Catholic education and involve building partnerships with dioceses and Catholic organizations including the Institute for Catholic Education. Challenges include building understanding among the general public about the value of a distinct Catholic school system. In his Catholic Education: Ensuring a Future, James Mulligan talks about the need to raise the consciousness of parents and ratepayers about how Catholic education contributes to the common good of society and the role of trustees as stewards of Catholic education:
Stewards in Catholic education are creative caretakers serving the Catholic community. …The long road that Catholic education must walk demands the strategy and stamina inherent in Catholic stewardship.
Two of the four publicly funded education systems in Ontario operate French Language schools. The right to education in the French language is enshrined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The province’s francophone community and its schools are partners in sustaining a strong francophone community in a minority environment. The province’s francophone community looks to its schools to protect, transmit and enhance French language and culture. The schools, in turn, look to the francophone organizations and agencies in the broader community to be their partners in building a strong francophone community. Advocacy can focus on support for an environment that addresses the importance of sustainable French language and culture with regard to its impact on maintaining high levels of student achievement and well-being.
Bringing About Change – Building Capacity
Advocacy should be a continuous process and is developed over a long time. It can be subtle and often involves putting the larger good before individual interests. Building good relationships in communities and with local and provincial politicians is a vital part of good advocacy practice.
The dialogue with communities is an essential starting point for identifying the issues that people are concerned about. This can be achieved in a range of ways. Invitations for input can be board- or trustee-generated through community meetings, public forums, open houses or surveys. The forum for dialogue may involve trustees of the board attending community-initiated meetings organized around specific issues. The desired outcome is building broad-based support for public policy issues and adding authority to advocacy efforts.
Trustees and municipal councillors share a constituency base and have a mutual interest in the resources in the community. Schools are a vital community resource and the advocacy work of school board trustees should include building relationships with municipal councillors so that they can connect with each other more effectively and work together for the community in areas such as shared recreational facilities and libraries, alternative use of school space for community agencies or a plan that supports good use of green space.
The local provincial Member of Parliament is a key partner to consider when developing an advocacy strategy. He or she is the closest link to the policy makers in the provincial government. Although the Ontario Ministry of Education, or the Minister’s office, might seem to be more direct targets for advocacy and, where needed, lobbying initiatives regarding public policy and funding decisions, the most responsive audience is often the local MPP because trustees and MPPs serve many of the same constituents.
By initiating public forums on issues such as parent engagement, community safety or sustainable environment, the elected board offers an ideal opportunity to engage politicians in discussions about public policy in ways that focus on the priorities and needs of their constituents.
Establishing good relations with the media is another strong component of successful advocacy. Since most people learn a great deal of what they know about schools and about the broader issues of public policy through the media, the board of trustees should ensure that their local media have the information they need to present a balanced picture of public education and the societal issues boards are dealing with.
A passionate voice in advocating for issues of importance is not the same as stirring up public anger or fear in order to bring pressure to bear on the issue in question. The latter tactic can have unwelcome results. This includes the eroding of confidence in publicly funded education. Families may become wary of the quality or stability of the school system. The public’s willingness to support and invest in education may suffer fatigue if they are frequently presented with “the sky is falling” scenarios. A government that is subject to competing pressures around the spending of tax dollars may find cause to rethink the priority it gives to the education sector. It is wise to keep the long-term goals in mind rather than focus attention on a troublesome but temporary – and manageable – issue.
Trustees as community leaders can expect to be energized, frustrated, overwhelmed and inspired by the complex range of demands of the job. The trustee is often the first point of contact for parents seeking solutions to a problem or in demand to support community initiatives. At the same time trustees have a full schedule of Board activities and meetings and a pressing need to keep on top of issues as they emerge. This can leave one feeling there is little time left to pursue the higher ideals, including advocating for a better world for Ontario’s young people. Trustees, however, are called to advocate for principles that are important to society. Principles such as diversity, inclusion and respect for all are integral to our schools not just because they are values in themselves but because they are the building blocks of a civil and cohesive society. In addition, Catholic, French and Public school trustees have the responsibility to be stewards and guardians of the distinctive beliefs and values of their respective education systems. How does one do it all? It has a lot to do with vision, setting priorities and not getting consumed by details at the expense of the bigger goals.
Advocacy creates the inspiration for change. Through their advocacy work, trustees can use their extensive experience to build public support for the conditions that will give Ontario’s young people the greatest chances in life. In the process, they will also help to create public policy that strengthens the fabric of our society.
Effective practices of many school boards in Ontario were relied upon in the development of this module. This is gratefully acknowledged by OESC-CSEO.
The advocacy work of school board associations in Ontario also informed the content of this module:
Assocation des conseils scolaires des écoles publiques de l’Ontario (ACÉPO) www.acepo.org
Association franco-ontarienne des conseils scolaires catholiques (AFOCSC) www.afocsc.org
Ontario Catholic School Trustees’ Association (OCSTA) www.ocsta.on.ca
Ontario Public School Boards’ Association (OPSBA) www.opsba.org
Good Governance: A Guide for Trustees, School Boards, Directors of Education and Communities, OPSBA, 2014 http://www.opsba.org/index.php?q=articles/the_2014_good_governance_guide
Minority Language Educational Rights, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: www.canlii.org/en/ca/charter_digest/index.html
Rights – Education, Roman Catholic minority, Canadian Constitution www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/ca_1982.html
Ontario Policy: Aménagement linguistique, www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/amenagement